At some point in our prehistory, people started telling stories to one another. Later, stories were composed in simpler forms so that others could repeat it, thus passing the information through generations. Story telling is easy to envisions the origin of some forms of literature, like ballads, novels, plays, etc. All of these taken together create a “unity” that we call History.

So, what is history? Certain famous writers/philosophers have created their own definitions of this subject. Most of these definitions can be considered sarcastic. I’ll go through a couple of those:

Wright Morris – “The past is useless. That explains why it is past”
Ralph Waldo Emerson  - “There is properly no history, only biography”
William L. Burton – “If you don’t like the past, change it”

Certain events in history have been changed by the writers themselves, this was mostly caused by the writers being non-objective, and trying to describe the facts that happened while trying to make their own sides looks more brave and courageous. As an example we can name the historian of Alexander the Great, aka Alexander III of Macedon. This above mentioned historian was actually being threatened by Alexander if he wrote anything that he wouldn’t like to see, and he had to deliver a document to Alexander that we can call a kind of a “report” at the end of every day, describing what he had done and accomplished.

What I’m trying to say by bringing Alexander’s historian, as an example is that the history of civilizations that has reached our times is not always pure truth. Facts have been warped and distorted to the likings of the empires.
From ancient times both Greeks and Romans were interested in the old eastern culture. They devoted various works to different civilizations, such as: Egypt, Lydia, Persia, Babylon, India, and Phoenicia. These sources tell us about diverse cultures, their specific military life and educational systems. All these points are thoroughly discussed,...