History of Indian Science and Technology

History of Indian science and technology
The history of science and technology in India begins with prehistoric human activity at Mehrgarh, in present-day Pakistan, and continues through the Indus Valley Civilization to early states and empires. The British colonial rule introduced western education in India. The British system of education, in its efforts to give rise to a native class of civil servants, exposed a number of Indians to foreign institutes of higher learning. Following independence science and technology in the Republic of India has included automobile engineering, information technology, communications as well as space, polar, and nuclear sciences.

4500 BC in sites such as Kuehgllaldkjg in the Indo-Gangetic Plains. By 5500 BCE a number of sites similar to Mehrgarh had appeared, forming the basis of later chalcolithic cultures. The inhabitants of these sites maintained trading relations with Near East and Central Asia.
Irrigation was developed in the Indus Valley Civilization by around 4500 BCE. The size and prosperity of the Indus civilization grew as a result of this innovation, which eventually led to more planned settlements making use of drainage and sewers. Sophisticated irrigation and water storage systems were developed by the Indus Valley Civilization, including artificial reservoirs at Girnar dated to 3000 BCE, and an early canal irrigation system from circa 2600 BCE. Cotton was cultivated in the region by the 5th millennium BCE—4th millennium BCE. Sugarcane was originally from tropical South and Southeast Asia. Different species likely originated in different locations with S. barberi originating in India and S. edule and S. officinarum coming from New Guinea.
By 2800 BCE private bathrooms, located on the ground floor, were found in many houses of the Indus civilization. Pottery pipes in walls allowed drainage of water and there was, in some case, provision of a crib for sitting in toilets. 'Western-style' toilets were...