History 103

HIS103 World Civilizations 1 (ABF1218C)
Instructor: Lynne Marlowe
Laurie Smith
May 14, 2012
During the classical era, the Mediterranean basin was dominated by two enormously influential cultures: The Greeks and The Romans. The Greeks did not build a centralized state beyond the short empire of Alexander of Macedon, but they did serve a link to the Mediterranean and Black Sea. This was via of colonization, commerce and cultural interaction. The Romans, however, established a cosmopolitan empire that encompassed much of Europe and Northern Africa. For the Romans, a tight governmental structure, organized trade promoted the movement of people, goods and ideas throughout the empire.
The Greeks and Romans were powerful in later influencing the Mediterranean, European and Southwest Asian cultures. These influences include, but are not limited to: The earliest form of democracy, founded in Athens. The contributions of literature in the forms of mythology, poetry, drama and essays. The philosophical contributions of Socrates, Plato and also Aristotle. Elaborate transportation and communication networks with sophisticated roads, sea lanes, connecting port cities and postal systems. The widespread of Stoicism and Christianity was part of the philosophical beliefs and values.
The ancient Greeks and Romans both began their histories as city-states. The geographical structure of Greece, however, because of the irregular coastline and mountain terrains isolated the city-states from one another. The Romans were in the middle of the north-south plain bordered on the west by the sea and the east with the mountains. Rome was exposed to the migrations and invasion of the people from the Po River in the north and from Sicily in the south. The two primary ethics and cultural influences of Romans were determined by the geography. The first influence was of the Etruscans in the north and the second was the Greeks in the south.
The difference between Greece and Rome was that the...