Historical Dating

Historical dating
This relies on written records such as documents, government and religious records, and inscriptions on stone, clay or papyrus. There are two techniques for dating in archaeological sites; relative and absolute dating.
Relative dating methods
• This type of dating is based on the principles of stratigraphy and typology to establish approximate dates for archaeological finds.

Stratigraphic dating:
• This method of dating involves the analysis of the different strata levels which contain different archaeological finds to establish a chronological sequence.

• Since each layer usually represents a different time period of human occupation at he site, they are able to work out which objects are earlier or later than each other

• Therefore the strata closer to the surface will be younger than those below

• However these Stratigraphic sequences can sometimes be unreliable
Typology dating:
• This same principle of organising finds in chronological sequence is also the basis of typology dating (relative dating).

• Groups of artefacts such as pottery, tools or weapons can be arranged in a sequence from the earliest types to the latest

• Two important principles of typology dating:

• All artefacts belonging to a particular period of time have similar features, based on creation materials, shape and decoration

• As time progresses, the artefacts will change form, style, appearance etc. materials and process of creation may also vary; general rule = earlier models tend to be more similar in design as appose to the elaborate detail of later models
Serration dating:
• Was created by William Flinders Petrie (1853-1942) in Naquada, Egypt in 1894-95

• It was foundered through the innovation of arranging all artefacts discovered in the excavated graves in typological sequence, and then similar groups were arranged in a succession (serial order)

The three – Age system:
• One of the earliest and most useful systems of organising...