Hercules Mulligan

A Fictional Journal of Hercules Mulligan
Michael Hollingsworth
May 22, 2011
Michelle McClure

A Fictional Journal of Hercules Mulligan
The Catholic Irish sided with the Catholic King James II of England after Cromwell and the Puritans devastated much of Ireland and massacred thousands during the middle 17th century. This coalition imploded when James II was defeated by William of Orange at the Battle of the Boyne in 1690. To punish the Irish and to insure that they remained subservient and powerless the English Crown enacted a series of brutal penal laws, which succeeded so well that eighteenth century Catholic Ireland was economically and socially devastated for generations.

By the end of the 18th century, the Penal Laws were gradually repealed, but some provisions remained in effect until as late as the early 19th century.
The provisions of those Penal Laws are as listed below:
  * The Catholic Church forbidden to keep church registers.
  * The Irish Catholic was forbidden the exercise of his religion.
  * Forbidden to receive education.
  * Forbidden to enter a profession.
  * Forbidden to hold public office.
  * Forbidden to engage in trade or commerce.
  * Forbidden to live in a corporate town or within five miles thereof.
  * Forbidden to own a horse of greater value than five pounds.
  * Forbidden to own land.
  * Forbidden to lease land.
  * Forbidden to accept a mortgage on land in security for a loan.
  * Forbidden to vote.
  * Forbidden to keep any arms for his protection.
  * Forbidden to hold a life annuity.
  * Forbidden to buy land from a Protestant.
  * Forbidden to receive a gift of land from a Protestant.
  * Forbidden to inherit land from a Protestant.
  * Forbidden to inherit anything from a Protestant.
  * Forbidden to rent any land that was worth more than 30 shillings ($291 USD) a year.
  * Forbidden to reap from his land any profit exceeding a third...