Heat & Energy

How does the study of heat relate to the kinetic theory of matter?
The kinetic theory of matter assumes that all matter is a made up of a massive number of tiny, ultimate particles called atoms or molecules in constant motion. The theory explains the behavior of matter within an object and the movement heat generates. Additionally, it discusses the relationship connecting pressure, temperature, and volume properties of gases.
What is heat?
Heat is something that moves between objects when two objects of different temperature are brought together.
What is temperature?
Temperature is how hot and how cold something is; a measure of the average kinetic energy of the molecules making up a substance.
What is the relationship between heat and temperature? 
The relationship between heat and temperature is essentially related with the change in condition from solid to liquid to gas and there are several important concepts related to this.
  * Latent heat of fusion: the heat involved in a solid-liquid phase change in melting or freezing. This process is reversible, i.e. when converting from liquid to solid, energy is released from the system.
  * Latent heat of vaporization: the heat involved in a liquid-gas phase change where there is evaporation or condensation

How are they different?
One way heat and temperature are different is,   temperature is a measure of the degree of hotness or coldness of a body, a measure that is based on the average molecular kinetic energy,   while   heat   is based on the total internal energy of the molecules of a body.
Take a cup of water and a pitcher of water for example. If both the small and the large amount of water have the same temperature, both must have the same average molecular kinetic energy. If you cool the both waters, it will take the pitcher longer to cool that the cup of water, this means that the pitcher of water has more internal energy.
What are the various properties of a substance that determine its heat...