Hca 210 Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar Disorder
By Gabrielle Owen
University of Phoenix

Bipolar disorder is also known as manic-depressive illness and is a mood disorder that causes dramatic shifts from depression to mania. Depression is the lowest point in the cycle and mania is the over-elevated high. There are different categories of bipolar disorder, each determined by the pattern of symptoms.
Bipolar disorder is one of the oldest recognized mental illness. Throughout history the name has changed although the symptoms have remained the same. Ancient writings have talked about people acting a certain way one day and then act drastically different the next day. This event was thought to be a climate related condition. Patients with this disorder were institutionalized to separate them from other people. Electroconvulsive shock therapy, prefrontal lobotomies were acceptable radical treatments in the 1950s. Medications have also evolved throughout the years.
Signs and symptoms of bipolar disorders include extreme lows followed by extreme highs, without having been caused by physiologic effects of drug substances. Mania is the term for the extreme highs. Zelmen (2010) explains; “Mania can vary from extreme elation, hyperactivity, and irritability to extreme aggression, with little need for sleep, and risky behaviors that are later regretted. An overly enthusiastic mood at times may attract others; however, mood shifts with delusions may lead to alienation of friends and family and to irresponsible behaviors such as spending one’s life savings or engaging in sexual indiscretions.” Mania symptoms include; increased physical and mental activity and self-confidence, excessive irritability, aggressive behavior, decreased need for sleep without experiencing fatigue, grandiose delusions, inflated sense of self-importance, racing speech, racing thoughts, flight of ideas, reckless behavior such as spending sprees, rash business decisions, erratic driving, and sexual indiscretions, in the most...