Giotto Madonna Enthrowned & Lamentation

Giotto was considered to be the first Renaissance painter.   His style was a departure from the Byzantine style and a return to classical naturalism.   The naturalistic approach was based upon observation.   The goal of naturalism was to show figures and objects in a natural way, with a more life-like quality.   Giotto’s work was important to the development of Renaissance painting because they were the first to show real depth and figures with substance in a realistic and natural way.
In Madonna Enthroned, Giotto use of a gold background is a reminiscent of the Byzantine style, but his new style included the addition of depth and figures with substance. The combination of the throne situated on the ground, the angels and saints facing toward Madonna and the overlapping of the angels all create depth that had not been seen before.   Giotto added substance to Madonna by showing the draping of her robe around her knees, the draping of her undergarment around her breasts and the realistic facial features.  
In Lamentation, Giotto was able to show depth and substance of figures through the foreshortening of the angels and the shading on the figures gives the illusion that the light within the painting has direction which gives them substance.   The angels show depth through foreshortening, they are seen head-on but their bodies disappear into the background. The foreshortened angels, along with the three dimension rock wall give a clear division between the foreground and the background, which also adds depth to the fresco.   The shading of the figure in the foreground shows the directionality of light. This directionality of light gives them substance.