Sigmund Freud, born on May 6, 1856,   was an Austrian neurologist. Freud would eventually be know as the father of psychoanalysis for his revolutionary theories and ideas. To understand exactly who freud is, you must first understand what is psychoanalysis. In simplest terms, psychoanalysis is a set of psychological theories and techniques. Below are the basic tenets of psychoanalysis:
1. Besides the inherited constitution of personality, a person's development is determined by events in early childhood.
2. Human attitude, mannerism, experience, and thought is largely influenced by irrational drives.
3. Irrational drives are unconscious.
4. Attempts to bring these drives into awareness meet psychological resistance in the form of defense mechanisms.
5. Conflicts between conscious and unconscious, or repressed, material can materialize in the form of mental or emotional disturbances, for example: neurosis, neurotic traits, anxiety, depression, etc.
6. The liberation from the effects of the unconscious material is achieved through bringing this material into the conscious mind (via e.g. skilled guidance, i.e. therapeutic intervention).
Since the popularization of Freud, psychoanalysis has expanded and been revised and developed in different directions. This was initially by Freud's colleagues and students, such as Alfred Adler and Carl Gustav Jung who later went on to develop their own ideas independently from Freud. Neo-Freudian’s were a group of loosely linked American theorists of the mid-twentieth century, who were all influenced by Freud, but extended his theories, often in social or cultural directions. Later Neo-Freudians included Erich, Karen Horney, Harry Stack Sullivan and Jacques Lacan.

The origin of Freud's early work with psychoanalysis can be linked to Josef Breuer. Freud credited Breuer with opening to the discovery of the psychoanalytical method by his treatment of the case of “Anna O”. In November 1880, Breuer was called into treat a...