Explain How Peer and Self –Assessment Can Be Used Effectively to Promote Learners Involvement and Personal Responsibility in the Assessment of Learning

First of all, let us go through definition of these two terms "Peer assessment" and" Self assessment".
Self assessment as per the name, it is when the learners assess themselves.
Peer assessment is when the learners in a group assess each other's work.

From definition above, both of the two methods, learners aim to assess their own work before it was assessed by an assessor; it is a kind of pre-assessment.
In self assessment, learners assess their own work through:
• Self-reflection
• Marking their own work using the course criteria.
Obviously these two approaches as a process encourages learners to be more involved in their assessment and also develop a sense of responsibility. This approach also improves learner performance, as the learner will be more understanding to the criteria requirements and by assess against the criteria they will identify their strengths and weaknesses and mistakes and take the benefit to have a remedy action.   One other clear evidence of how this method help in their involvement is by taking the position of the Assessor, learners will greatly appreciate the work of the assessor and then will exactly acquiring the knowledge about the assessor expectations when they have to be under real assessment.
However, taking the position of the assessor, is a powerful technique, but the self judgment would still tolerated by the margin of accuracy handled by the learner self, this margin might lose the concept of the criteria.   So it is much more valid and reliable if this responsibility of assessment is challenged by different candidates rather learner himself. This is exactly what peer-assessment can provide. Peer assessment is still embedding inherently an approach of   self assessment too, this is   by accepting the idea that each member of the group will initiate a mindful compression   between   his self assessment   against group -assessment, this comparison will let him in a position involved within   the group in many interrogations ,...