Examine the Main Trends in Births and Deaths in the United Kingdom Since 1900. (24 Marks)

Assignment 4

Examine the main trends in births and deaths in the United Kingdom since 1900. (24 marks)
The birth rate is the amount of live births per 1000 per year. The death rate is the amount of deaths per 1000 per year. These statistics show that the rates are constantly changing patterns and they show that the rates are both decreasing.
The birth rate is in decline. There was a 0.3 per cent drop in the overall number of live births from 708,711 in 2008 to 706,248 in 2009 - the first annual drop since 2001. The rate is still in decline. There are many different reasons why this is happening. One reason is the changes in the position of women. They can finally go somewhere in life, rather than have to stay at home doing domestic work as they have broken through the ‘glass ceiling’. Another reason is the decline in the infant mortality rate which is the number of deaths under the age of 1 per 1000 per year. This means that the number of live births will be increasing as they aren’t dying as much. Another reason is because children are an economic liability. Children cost a lot of money and that is something not a lot of people have, therefore they won’t be able to afford a child and so they don’t have one.
However, at some periods of time there are ‘baby booms’. These are times where suddenly loads of babies are born and rapidly increase the birth rate for that time. In 2012, statistics show there being 700,000 babies born. This is the biggest amount since 1971.
The death rate is also in decline. There were 484,367 deaths registered in England and Wales in 2011 compared with 493,242 in 2010, a fall of 1.8%. There are also many reasons why there is such a decline. One reason is improved nutrition. McKeown argues that this is a major factor as it increased the chances of survival from infection. Another reason is medical improvements such as advances in antibiotics and research and higher standards in hospitals and the introduction of the NHS. Another...