Evolution of Hrm


1. The Industrial Revolution Era

The Industrial Revolution appeared almost
simultaneously with the intellectual, scientific and
political revolutions of the 17th and 18th
centuries. After the Industrial Revolution, the
factory-system came into being. As a result, (i) it
was necessary to start and stop work at the same
time; (ii) establish rigorous working rules
applicable to large numbers of people; (iii) an
extensive hierarchy of officials appeared; (iv) the
social distance between factory hand and owner was
increasing widely; (v) most employees in the
factories worked long hours at low pay under
conditions of extremes in temperature, dust, noise,
and other discomforts. Labour was usually considered
a commodity to be bought and sold and the prevailing
political philosophy of Laissez faire resulted in
little action by governments to protect the lot of
the workers (French,1974). This new industrial era
brought about materialism, discipline, monotony,
boredom, job displacement, impersonality,
workinterdependence, and related behavioural
phenomena for the labours (Perline, et al., 1969).

2. Trade Unionism Era

It was inevitable that associations of wage earners
would arise to protect themselves against some of
the abuses of the Industrial Revolution and to
improve their lot in life. Trade or labor unions
spread from factory to factory, and shop to shop
(French, 1974). Strikes were one consequence. The
English Parliament passed a series of laws in 1799
and 1800 -known as the "Combination Laws", that
declared trade unions to be illegal (Cohen, 1960).
After the Commonwealth vs. Hunt decision, the right
to organize and bargain collectively was gradually
established (French, 1974). A number of Acts of the
UK and USA during this time brought the
union-management relations, individual employee's
right and unions' rights and power.   to their
present position.

3. Social Reformer Era

About 1799, Robert Owen,...