1. State all the four Ethical Theories. In your opinion which theory is the most relevant for Malaysian infrastructure project? Justify your answer.
(12 marks)

a. Duty Ethics - duty ethics contends that there are duties that should be performed (the duty to treat others fairly or the duty not to injure others) regardless of whether there acts lead to the most good.

b. Virtue Ethics - virtue ethics regards those action as bad that manifest good traits (virtue), and regards those action as bad that display bad traits (vices). this ethical theory focuses on the type of person we should strive to be.

c. Utilitarianism - utilitarianism seeks to produce the most utility, define as a balance between good and bad consequences of an action, taking into account the consequences for everyone affected.

d. Rights Ethics - rights ethics emphasizes that we all have moral rights, and any action that violates these rights is ethically unacceptable. like duty ethics, the ultimate overall good of the actions is not to be taken into account.

2. There are 2 major ethical issue related to research. Identify and discuss these issues.

1. Honesty in research problem
- relates to a states of mind essential to successfully performing research where includes avoiding preconceived notions about what the result will be, being open to changing the hypothesis and ensure the objective frame of mind is still maintained

2. Honesty reporting the result
- results must be accurately reported. once the experiment test has been performed, the result must not   be overstated but accurate assessment and interpretation of data.

3. Engineered accidents are caused by flow in design. Discuss how you would minimize the risk of this   type of accident to happen

- There is a Department of Occupational Safety and Health , Ministry of Human Resources (DOSH) that to ensure safety, health and welfare of all persons at all places of work

- Type of accident:
• procedural accidents