Essay on: Analyse the Basic Ideas of Fascism and the Nature of Its Appeal in Interwar Europe. Use Examples from at Least Two Countries.

Essay on: Analyse the basic ideas of Fascism and the nature of its appeal in interwar Europe. Use examples from at least two countries.

In this essay I will discuss the basic ideas of Fascism and the nature of its appeal in the period between the two Great Wars. Moreover I will present the failure of democracy together with the international treaties which did not succeed and the impact of Great Depression as important factors in this appeal. Firstly, I will

consider the most important characteristics of Fascism described by scholars like Roger Griffin, Eugene Weber and Andrew Heywood: anti-liberalism, anti-conservatism, anti-rationalism, totalitarianism, racism, elitism. Secondly, I will explain why Fascism appeared to be the answer to people‟s needs and why it was appealed by the nation. As an ideology Fascism was developed in contradiction to modernity and Enlightenment ideas. (Heywood, 1998:212). It can be seen as an anti-ideology with characteristics such as: anti-liberalism, anti-conservatism, anti-rationalism and others. In order to analyse Fascism as an ideology I will draw on research by Roger Griffin (1995), Eugene Weber (1964) and Andrew Heywood (1998). Firstly, Fascism is an interesting ideology to analyse; there are some core ideas that can be identified. Roger Griffin emphasizes the mythic core of Fascism, the idea of salvation, of rebirth of the country from a crisis time. This can be seen in fascists slogans such as: “Germany awake”, “New Italy”, or the Romanian Iron Guard appeal for the New Man („omul nou‟). Fascism argued that this is what the nation needed in those times of crisis: a revolution in thinking, something new and strong to bring them back the hope, an “ultra-nationalism ideology”: „Fascism is a genus of political ideology whose mythic core in its various permutation is a palingenetic form of populist ultra-nationalism‟ (Griffin, 1995:3-4). The first characteristic of Fascism noted in the introduction is...