Epo Essay

Description of the Substance:
• Erythropoietin is a naturally occurring hormone (glycoprotein), produced in the body.
• This hormone can be manipulated in cell culture to produce the recombinant hormone EPO that human can intake.
• Erythropoietin is produced in the liver and kidney and travels to the bone marrow to start its activation.
What it Does:
• Erythropoietin promotes the increase of red blood cells in the bone marrow which means an overall increase in hemoglobin and oxygen in the body.  
Why One Takes it:
• This hormone is used for diseases such as anemia and patients that have underwent chemotherapy where there is a low red bloods cell count.
• Also EPO is widely popular as an endurance enhancing substance for athletes which helps their cardiovascular system by getting more oxygen for cellular respiration (ATP).
• The positive effects of EPO are that it can be used for blood transfusion; EPO recombinant can safely increase a person’s blood level without searching for matching blood or worrying about contaminations.
• EPO can increase red blood cell count, which in turn increases the alertness of people and allows for a longer period of strenuous exercise.
• EPO has the ability to make patients who have anemia or underwent chemotherapy to increase blood count level. The hormone can restore red blood cells by increasing blood cell production in the bone.
• The negative effects are that it can cause an increase in the blood pressure due to increase in the volume of blood, which can result in clotting, and various other problems such as stroke.  
• EPO proliferates tumor cells at a very fast pace by binding onto tumor cells that have EPO receptors, causing the tumor to grow.
Availability & Cost:
• Erythropoietin is only available in pharmacies, hospitals and pharmaceutical companies that are licensed to sell EPO and only to certain patients.
• The cost of EPO varies per patient: it is determined through the recommended...