Aleah Clay
Honors English II
Period 2

As with any research paper, one must begin with an initial statement, that may or may not change as you move throughout the research process. The initial statement for this paper is that anesthesia used during a woman's pregnancy, specifically epidural anesthesia, can affect a fetus and mother in a negative way. This was a tough topic because more than fifty percent of the sources used, all had the positive and negative aspects of anesthesia. But, they also conclusively said that most effects found can not accurately be blamed dependently on the anesthesia given. This is because of outside factors, such as genetics, things that may not be able to be diagnosed in the fetus until after birth, etc. On the other hand, there are still effects that have been directly linked to the anesthetics themselves. This paper will give you a brief and thorough overview of the changes that the body undergoes during pregnancy, positive and negative effects of anesthesia and a brief descriptions of a few studies relevant to this topic.
During a woman's pregnancy, her body undergoes many changes. These changes help determine the combination of anesthetics used and   help determine how much of the anesthetics is used. These factors are used by the person administering, usually an obstetrician or nurse-anesthetists, the medications.
There are several cardiovascular changes that a pregnant woman's body undergoes. These changes include: an increase in intravascular fluid volume, plasma volume increases out of proportion to red cell mass, cardiac output increases, and a decrease in systemic vascular resistance. (Ting) With the increase of plasma volume comes the possibility of developing anemia. This is commonly referred to “physiological anemia of pregnancy,” in the medical world. Cardiac output is forty percent higher than pre-pregnancy levels. From what was found, in a normal pregnancy there is not an increase in blood pressure and...