Question 1
1. Case control studies are designed in such a way so as to explore whether exposure can be associated with a particular outcome, such as a disease or certain condition. In these studies, the definition groups are based on the outcome and exposure assessment for potential risk factors. The first step in case control studies is the identification of the case (for example a group of people known to have the certain condition), as well as the control group ( a group that does not have the outcome). The second step is to explore whether some of the subjects in each group were exposed, and how the frequency of the exposure is measured between the case and the control group. Case control studies are basically observational, because there is no intervention taking place, and is a retrospective determination of the exposure to a certain risk factor.
Advantages of case control studies
    • Case control studies are relatively less time consuming, since the disease has occurred in the past, therefore there is no need to assess the disease or condition.
    • They are an efficient way to study rare cases and diseases or outbreaks of diseases, since they are fast; during an outbreak, the fast examination of certain conditions is required, and a sufficient number of people suffering can be quickly accessed.
    • They allow a simultaneous examination of multiple conditions and risk factors
    • Allow the establishment of associations between suspected risk factors and conditions in initial and preliminary studies
    • They are also useful in the case where induction period is long
    • Case control studies are easier, less expensive, and do not require a long follow up period (Merill, 2010)

2. Disadvantages of case control studies
    ➢ Being retrospective studies, case control studies have problems with the quality of data, and are prone to recall bias; this type of study relies heavily on memory.
    ➢ They are also prone to...