English Lexicology

Lecture 1
      Lexicology as a Science. Stylistically Marked and Stylistically Neutral Words.

  1. Lexicology as a science
  2. The word and its characteristics
  3. Meaning, its compounds, types of meaning
  4. The main lexicological problems
  5. Informal style
  6. Formal style
  7. Stylistically neutral   vocabulary
What’s in a name?
That we call a rose
By any name would
Smell as sweet…
W. Shakespeare. Romeo and Juliet
      These lines reflect one of the fundamental problems of the linguistic research.
What’s the name? Is there any connection between the word and the object it represents? What we know about the nature of the word?
      Lexicology (from Or. lexis 'word' and logos 'learning') a branch of linguistics, is the study of words.
      The term word denotes the basic unit of a given language. A word is a unit which combines form and content.
      Sound letter form of a word is called lexeme and the content is called seme.
      Each word is characterized by following features:
      - indivisibility (a live wire- combination of words, alive - adjective)
      - isolatability – ability of a word to function alone, to form sentence (Out!)
      - positional mobility – ability of a word to change its position, its place in a sentence ( They suddenly come out of a very nice house. Suddenly they come out of a very nice house).
    Each word has grammatical and lexical meaning.
      Lexical meaning consists of denotative, signifying and connotative meanings.
      Denotative meaning is what a word denotes.
e.g. father means male parent
      Signifying meaning gives ideas, presents characteristics, generalizes.
e.g. winter- a season between autumn and spring.
      Connotative meaning comprises several   components or semes and deals with the attitude of a speaker. Can be different connotations: emotional covered: cool, terrific, associative semes: fur-tree, national cultural semes denotes national...