English Christianity in the Reign of Elizabeth I

How different was English Christianity in the reign of Elizabeth I (1558-1603) from that of the childhood of Roger Martyn (born c.1527)?
During the 16th Century England went through a period of religious upheaval referred to as the English Reformation. During this period English Christianity went from the traditional Catholic worship to that of an emerging Protestant faith. Martyn lived through possibly the most tumultuous period of religious transition in English History. The reformation began in the 1530’s following Henry VIII’s split with Rome and the papacy. Primarily this was due to the refusal of Pope Clement VII to grant Henry a divorce from his wife Catherine of Aragon. Henry declared himself head of the church in England and ordered the dissolution of the monasteries.
Throughout the 16th century the reformation continued, first through Henry’s son Edward VI and his daughter Elizabeth I. A brief counter-reformation was initiated during the reign of Mary I, a devout catholic. During her reign over 300 Protestants were burned at the stake for heresy. Upon ascending to the throne in 1558 Elizabeth passed the Act of Supremacy, restoring the Protestant faith as the dominant religion.
In order to ascertain how different Christianity was by the reign of Elizabeth I it is vital to understand some of the key differences between the Catholic and Protestant faiths. The Catholic Church is by far the older church, its doctrine states that it is directly descended from Jesus Christ via St. Peter and a succession of Pontiffs. Protestantism has its origins in the teachings of Martin Luther, a German theologian, who wrote his thesis on the sale of indulgences. We will now look at the more specific doctrinal and physical changes that occurred during the reformation.
Arguably the greatest difference between Christianity during the childhood of Roger Martyn and the Elizabethan era decades later was who head of the church in England was. At the time of his birth England...