Endocrine Glands

The Pineal Gland is found in the brain and is responsible for producing melatonin which regulates the body clock.   If there is low melatonin secretion this can cause Seasonal Affection Disorder (SAD) which can lead to depression, slow mental and physical activity and excessive sleeping and eating.
The Anterior Pituitary is found at the base of the brain.   The Anterior Pituitary is responsible for producing the thyroid stimulating hormone that regulates metabolism, the somatotrophic growth hormone, the follicle stimulating hormone which stimulates sperm production and is also responsible for the production of oestrogen. The adrenocorticotrophic hormone which stimulates adrenal cortex to produce cortisol, the luteinising hormone that gets the breasts ready for lactation and prolactin that stimulates milk production. The posterior pituitary produces the antidiuretic hormone which is responsible for decreasing urine production.   Amenorrhoea can occur due to the hormonal disturbance of pituitary glands or hypothalamus.   This would result in the absence of the menstrual cycle and no periods.
The parathyroid gland is four pairs on the back of the thyroid gland. It controls blood calcium levels. Too little of the parathyroid hormone will lead to Hypothyroidism.
The pancreas is found within the abdomen. It produces insulin that controls metabolism of carbohydrates and it also lowers blood sugar levels, glucagon- which regulates blood sugar and somatostatin that controls the levels of insulin and growth hormones.   When the Pancreas does not produce enough insulin it results in diabetes mellitus. Diabetes insipidus can also occur and this is due to the lack of the vasopressin hormone.
This gland releases the hormone adrenalin.   It prepares the body for sudden stressful events and controls levels of salt and potassium in the blood.   If the adrenal gland produces too many glucocorticoids it can cause Cushing’s syndrome which can lead to weight gain, excess facial and body...