Option A – Dyslexia: explanations and responses   (1500 words)
  1. Critically discuss the range of perspectives in the literature related to recent research in the area of dyslexia by comparing and contrasting different definitions, models and explanations of dyslexia. Relate your discussion specifically to research findings issues and perspectives discussed in Part 3 of the Study Guide and the associated actions. Relevant readings and resources which focus on dyslexia and are relevant to this discussion can be found in the set book, in the module readers, on the E801 website and in the audio-visual materials.

This section considers dyslexia from three different standpoints: the medical, the social and the holistic view.

‘The Medical Model’ of dyslexia views dyslexia as neurological and genetic in origin causing an individual to have a deficit in cognitive processing. The deficit causes the difficulty in the acquisition of language skills, where terminology such as ‘word blindness’, word deafness, developmental dyslexia and mirror reading are used. Everatt and Reid (2009) point to a range of facets that may be defined in dyslexia, such as structural and functional brain related factors. These include; problems with: processing speed; inter hemisphere transfer; literacy achievement levels and the role of IQ in diagnosis.

In contrast, a ‘Social Model’ of dyslexia argues that someone may have core differences about the way and how learning is acquired, and that society places restrictions on learners. According to this perspective, ‘disability is the social restriction placed on people with impairments by society’ (Riddick, 2001, p. 225). This is different to the medicalisation view which considers impairments as a problem, where the focus is on ‘altering the individual rather than altering society’ (Riddick, 2001, p. 225).

Essentially, a Medical Model views the individual as the problem as opposed to the social model which looks at the way society...