Chapter 4 Assignments

Assignment 1:

  1. The geography of Iran included high mountains, and this forced the Iranian people to build irrigation channels so the water would not evaporate. These channels had to be built underground and required a lot of labor, and a central authority had to organize the laborers. The lack of natural boundaries, such as mountains, in the northeast of Iran made it more susceptible to attacks led by nomads of Central Asia.
  2. Minerals were plentiful in Iran, such as copper, tin, gold, and silver, and they were the main objects of trade, along with crafted goods, such as textiles and carpets. Agriculture was not traded as much because of the lack of rich land.

Assignment 2:
  3. Notes – The Empire was divided into twenty provinces that were supervised by a satrap (governor), who was related to the royal court. The satrap collected tributes for the king and each province had to contribute precious metals, which was mostly hoarded. The founder of the empire, Darius, adapted Zoroastrian teachings, which held people to a high moral standard and encouraged people to tell the truth. It may have had an influence on Judaism and Christianity.

Assignment 3:
  4. Greece had limited rainfall, which led to smaller populations. The Greek islands also had similar climate and the same plants and animals as Greece. Greeks obtained a lot of materials, such as gold, copper, and grains, by sea. The sea provided a faster and cheaper way of transport, and led to some Greeks island-hopping.
  5. Before contact with the Phoenician ships, Greece was isolated from the rest of the world and did not have access to a lot of resources. Once the Phoenician ships came, Greeks began to search for new materials and opportunities for trade, as well as the implementation of a writing system. Greeks used Phoenician symbols for certain syllables and used the alphabet to preserve oral epics and keep track of inventories. There was also a population...