Discuss the Principle Differences Between the Orchestras of Handel and Beethoven and How the Composers Wrote for Them

Handel’s instrumentation for the water music suite no.2 in D major consisted of 2 oboes, one bassoon, 2 trumpets (in D), 2 horns (in D), violins (2), viola, cello, double bass, and it has been reported that the instruments would have been doubled to cater for an outdoor venue, typically 50+ musicians. Beethoven’s instrumentation was similar, with the use of oboes (2), an additional bassoon (making 2), Trumpets (although in Eb rather than D), and an identical string section, comprised of Violin, viola, cello and double bass. Cello and double bass are normally doubled, but Beethoven uses separate melodies for each instrument. The instruments play a range of dynamics in Beethoven’s symphony, ranging from pp-ff, whereas there is no dynamic markings on the Water Music score (as they were all fairly loud in order to fit the outdoor venue). There is use of an imitative texture which makes use of the technique of sequencing, especially descending in both of the pieces, such as bars 29-32 in Beethoven’s piece and 9-10 in the Allegro section of Handel’s piece (2 beat antiphony), which Is also a tutti phrase. Another similarity is the use of harmony in the instruments, as modulations are only made to keys relative to the tonic, such as the relative B minor (to D major) in Water music.
Both pieces start with string instruments, which adds to the string dominated orchestra feel, although the melody sounds more fanfare like in Handel’s suite no. 2 of Water music (now referred to as WM). WM starts with homophony, in the chord D major, establishing the key early on, Whereas Beethoven writes the first bar in unison, to create tension and drama. There is much more ornamentation in WM, which uses rapid semiquavers in the second bar, which contrasts to Beethoven’s fifth symphony (first movement, now referred to as BS) which uses quavers through the imitative instruments.
In terms of the ending of the pieces, BS ends with a code, which is in the tonic key. It had a descending...