Diploma in Specialist Support for Teaching and Learning in Schools Level 3 - Theorists


  There are many theorists who are linked to children and their development, many of which have more than one theory. These theories are often seen in practice, and cover all developmental stages.  

  Jean Piaget focused on cognitive development, and believed that children learn best through active play and exploration. He often referred to children as “lone scientists”, therefore believing that children do not necessarily need adult and social intervention in order to learn. His theory included four stages of cognitive development, which are as follows:
• Stage One: Sensory Motor (0-2 Years): During this stage, babies are already aware of their own wants and needs, and are only able to see things from their own perspective. Children are very sensual at this stage, learning through oral exploration, and are very responsive to lights and sounds. Sensory rooms and treasure baskets are often used in order to aid this stage of development.
• Stage Two: Pre-Occupational (2-7 Years): Children tend to become animalistic at this stage – that is to say, they believe that inanimate objects (such as teddy bears) have thoughts and feelings of their own. Children often display this during activities such as role play.
• Stage Three: Concrete Operations (7-11 Years): At this stage, children are no longer animalistic, and are now able to see things from another’s point of view. They are now able to play games in which rules must me followed and are developing complex reasoning skills. Board games such as Operation and Mouse Trap can help children to build on these skills, along with Hangman and Noughts and Crosses.
• Stage Four: Formals Operations (11 Years-Adulthood): Children are now able to think logically in a more complex and abstract fashion. However, it should be noted that Piaget did not believe that every young person could reach this stage.

  Lev Semyonvich Vygotsky believed the opposite to Piaget. He believed that social interaction is a better...