Describe Freud’s Theory of Personality Development.

The importance of early experiences explains what happens in childhood that impacts the behaviour in ‘adulthood’.
Freud believed that everyone went through 5 sequential stages throughout childhood which lead to becoming a healthy adult. At each stage the Libido is fixated on a particular part of the body, under indulgence at a particular stage of the psychosexual stages led to a specific personality trait, such as smoking, nail biting or thumb sucking (etc...); the different parts of the body relates to the phases of development.
Freud described the psychosexual stages in developments:

    • The oral stage (0-18months). This means that the pleasure is found through putting things in the mouth, either by sucking or eating.
    • The anal stage (1-3yrs) the body is focused on the anus and pleasure is found from withholding or expelling faeces. This usually occurs during potty training.
    • The phallic stage (3-6yrs). Focus is mainly on the genitals and the parent of the opposite sex: for the boy it’s called the Oedipus complex, for the girl the Electra complex. The boy wants the mother as the ‘primary love giver’; and so it become attracted to his mother; but fears his father knows. He then thinks that, as a punishment, the father is going to castrate him, causing castration anxiety. Later the boy identifies with the father which stops the castration anxiety. By doing so it means the boy can progress to the next stage successfully. For the girl, she desires her mother and wants to be like her. But she realises that she doesn’t have a penis like her father. So she develops penis envy. The girl becomes hostile towards her mother as she thinks her mother has castrated her. The girl develops an attraction to her father instead; she believes he can give her a baby which acts as a penis substitute. Eventually the conflict is resolved with the mother and identifies with her as she doesn’t want to lose her...