Describe and Evaluate Carl Jung’s Theory Concerning Personality Types and Show How They Might Usefully Help a Therapist to Determine Therapeutic Goals

Describe and evaluate Carl Jung’s theory concerning personality types and show how they might usefully help a therapist to determine therapeutic goals.


The title asks to portray the theory of Personality Types that Carl Jung presented and to justify its potential through therapy.   In order to do this, it would be beneficial to see how Jung arrived at this theory as it is rare that any idea is formulated from thin air; there are usually some forms of notions or pre-conceived ideas that have been proposed from which a newer and, sometimes, improved version is created.

Nevertheless, the finished article usually has its origins in an earlier form however far-removed it may appear from this state.   And, understandably, the latest rendering will itself be ripe for transformation, something that Jung did himself on his own theory during his lifetime.

The Four Humours

In classical Greek times (460-322BC), medicine was linked with philosophy.   Philosophers Hippocrates, Plato and Aristotle contributed to the vision that of health, disease and the functions of the body being interlinked.   Although they had their differences, they saw health as being an equilibrium of the body as determined by the Four Humours:


The traditional four elements formed the basis for the theory of medicine (and later typology), each of the humours associated with particular physical and mental characteristics and could be combined in a more complex personality type.   They expounded that sap in plants and blood in animals were the ‘fount of life.’   Other bodily fluids – phlegm, bile, faeces, became visible when the balance was disturbed, and thus illness followed (eg, epilepsy caused by phlegm blocking the airways causing the body to struggle and convulse so as to free itself).

But their understanding could be said to be based on Hikmat, medicine and tradition of ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia (still practised today in parts of...