Dementia – Care and Communication
The effects of Dementia on a client, carers and family will be discussed in this paper. First to be explained will be the aetiology, prevalence and unique aspects of two different kinds of Dementia, dementia of Alzheimer's Type and Vascular dementia. Then alterations in communication and responses of clients, carers and family will be examined. Finally, this information will be analyzed and summarised in the conclusion.
Aetiology & Prevalence
Dementias are neurodegenerative syndromes. The resulting brain dysfunction is characterised by deterioration of intellectual function, cognitive impairment, memory loss and confusion (Norman & Ryrie, 2013). Aetiology of Dementia of Alzheimer's Type (DAT) is still being researched, the main aspects of DAT are accumulation of amyloidal plaques interfering with neurons and development of neurofibrillary tangles within the cells. Unlike DAT Vascular Dementia's (VaD)   main aspects are impeded oxygen supply to the brain due to infarction of small and medium sized cerebral vessels (Fortinash & Holoday-Worret, 2012).  
Current theories for the causes of DAT include: The genetic theory, suggests a genetic link to DAT. The immune system theory suggests that DAT is a result of immune system malfunction. The oxidation theory suggests that the cause is build-up of damage from oxidative processes. The virus and bacteria theory suggests that the cause is due to viral or bacterially induced conditions. The nutritional theory suggests poor nutrition and lack of mental stimulation during childhood may be predisposing to Alzheimer's dementia. The metal deposit theory, proposes that accumulation of aluminium ions replacing iron ions contributes to existing dementia. The neurotransmitter theory proposes that DAT is due to a decrease in acetylcholine, dopamine, norepinephrine or serotonin levels, limiting neuronal activity. The membrane phospholipid metabolism theory proposes that DAT is due to an abnormality...