International Journal of Humanities and Social Science

Vol. 1 No. 9 [Special Issue – July 2011]

Critical Thinking across the Curriculum: Process over Output
Claudette Thompson St. Bonaventure University B 51 Plassmann Hall, St. Bonaventure NY 14760, USA E-mail:, Phone: 716-375-2090 Abstract
Critical thinking is the most valuable skill that schools can bequeath to their graduates. Teaching for critical thinking has always been a learning goal for teachers across all disciplines and levels. However, this outcome is not always accomplished. Critical thinking competence requires a philosophical shift from output to process, learning to thinking and subject isolation to subject integration. As a framework for understanding critical thinking across the curriculum, this article reviews traditional and contemporary theories that are relevant to this process, explores the nature of critical thinking and analyzes approaches to instruction and assessment that teachers may use to foster critical thinking. The analysis is supported by descriptions of pedagogical practices that have been used to motivate students to engage in the processes that characterize critical thinking.

Key words: critical thinking, curriculum, inquiry, problem-solving, process, cognitive, theory Introduction
Globally, twenty first century governments and industries are seeking to grow their economies by identifying alternate sources of energy, improved products, creating new business and technological solutions, and finding quicker and more efficient ways to communicate. Schools are charged to respond to these and other societal needs. To do so, schools must re-think their focus and develop and implement curricula that will produce the necessary human capital to identify viable solutions for these needs (Shah, 2010.) Critical thinking is the most important skill for problem solving, inquiry and discovery. It is the systematic approach of skillfully evaluating information to...