Critical Reflection

1.0 Introduction
1.1Activity Theory
Now let us start by answering what Activity theory is (AT), it is rather an illustrative framework or meta-theory than an analytical theory. It takes into account of an entire work or activity system and consists of more than one user.   The main strengths of AT is that it fills the gap between the reality of the social and an individual (Roth & Byod, 1999) . In the other words, it studies both through the interceding activity. The purpose of the AT is created through the disagreements within the components of the system. According a leading theorist of AT, Bonnie Nardi, who majors in ethonographic studies, activity theory "focuses on practice, which precludes the need to tell apart 'applied' from 'pure' science—understanding the everyday practice in the real world is the most important intention of scientific practice. The object of activity theory is to understand the unity of consciousness and activity” (Roth & Byod, 1999).
AT is mainly useful in qualitative research methodologies as a form of lens. It provides a system of analyzing and understanding an incident, finding similarities and making conclusions across interactions, describing an incident and representing it through a fixed language and expression (Roth & Byod, 1999). A particular activity is an aim-directed or using the tools for a meaningful interaction of a subject with an object. These tools are in the forms of mental processes which visibly constructs, regardless of being substantial or mental.
So how does AT help in Science Education? AT recognises the internal and external of processes of cognitive involved by using the tools, including the transformation or development that occurs from this interaction.   AT deals with both the framework and agency of individual and clearly shows that humans are agents of changes who need to take actions to create their learning environment.
In my opinion, students are the most important subjects of...