Understanding how theoretical perspective apply to counselling work in health and social care
According to the NHS (2014), ‘counselling is a type of [physiotherapy] that allows [an individual] talk about their problems and feelings in a confidential… environment’. Three theorists involved in counselling are Freud, Rogers’ and Beck. They each under-took scientific research into the psychological mind of individuals and came up with different ways to understanding it. The main models are the psychodynamic, humanistic and cognitive perspective.
The Psychodynamic perspective was introduced by Sigmund Freud who explored the human mind more thoroughly.   He believed that the origin of patients’ illnesses lay in the unconscious mind.  This included relationship patterns that evolved since childhood. Freud mainly focused on the psychosexual stages of development. These included the oral, anal, phallic, latent and the genital stages of development. According to McLead (2008), ‘Freud stressed that the first five years of life are crucial to the formation of adult personality’. The id must be carefully monitored to amuse social appeal and avoiding this can strengthen the increase of conflict between our desires and our social demands. The ego and superego must progress to satisfy this control and straighten the need for fulfilment into socially acceptable networks. Freud believed that in order to successfully move onto the next stage of development, individuals’ must resolve any conflict that has taken place. The determination of each of these conflicts requires the outflow of sexual energy and the more energy that is expended at particular stages is important. See appendix 1 on the psychosexual stages of development.

Psychodynamic counselling aims to help patients make sense of their existing situation and of their feelings that are associated with memories that are brought back that is disturbing them.   As outlined by Direct Counselling UK (2011), ‘Individuals can...