Counselling Approaches

Freud Psychodynamic Theory
Sigmund Freud is one of the world’s most famous doctors; many theories derive from his original work. In this assignment I will outline the main concepts including the following:

Topographical Model
ID / Ego / Superego
Psychosexual Stages Of Development
Defense Mechanisms

Freud described three states of mind, which he referred to as the “ Topographical Model.”

Conscious – This refers to the here and now, you are fully aware of your thought and feelings, this is a temporary state and parts may be stored in your pre conscious

Pre conscious - This is the stored memories, thoughts and feeling and can be easily accessed via your self.

Unconscious refers to deep-rooted emotions and thoughts that we have suppressed. We can not access these feeling without the assistance of counselling. We have chosen to suppress these thoughts as they occurred generally in child hood and are painful. We have chosen to forget or have not acknowledged the issue and have locked it away.

Freud stated that there are 3 parts to a person’s soul.

The ID is governed by the pleasure principle, is present since birth
The Ego is governed by the reality principle and is developed in first years of life. The Super Ego is governed by the morality principal and is developed through interaction with parental and family influences etc. The ego therefore has three taskmasters and can face different anxieties:

The external world can create realistic anxieties and we fear dangers in simple tasks like crossing the road. The Super ego creates conflict with the ego and this creates moral anxiety as discussed above. The ID conflicts with the ego create neurotic anxieties.

Also central to Freud’s theory are the use of defence mechanism to reduce anxieties. The ego copes with constant impulses and demands from the ID and super ego. Due to the constant pressure from both sources this may cause anxiety. To prevent people experiencing extreme tension...