Copper Poduction

This report will explain how the metal element copper is separated and refined from its ore and also discuss technological advances in chemistry, as well as the economical efficiency and consequences of the production of copper.
Copper is found naturally in rocks in the crust of the Earth. The crust contains rocks, which are mixtures of solidified mineral crystals and grains. In these minerals are materials with specific chemical compositions and unique physical properties. If a rock has enough of a metal in it to be economically viable to extract then it is called an ore. Here is a table containing the main copper ores:
Mineral name | Formula | Appearance |
Cupritecopper oxide | Cu2O | Red, earthy |
ChalcociteCopper(I)sulphide | Cu2S | Dark grey, metallic |
BorniteCopper iron sulphide | Cu5FeS4 | Golden brown, metallic |
MalachiteCopper carbonate hydroxide | CuCO3Cu(OH)4 | Bright green, earthy |
AzuriteCopper carbonate hydroxide | 2CuCO3Cu(OH)4 | Blue, glassy |
ChalcopyriteCopper iron sulphide | CuFeS2 | Golden yellow, metallic |

As you can see, all of the ores contain the element copper (Cu) and these atoms are bonded with other elements and/or compounds such as oxygen (O), sulphur (S), Iron (Fe), carbonate (CO3) and hydroxide (OH) to form a crystalline solid. These compounds containing copper are found in ores which also contain impurities like sand (SiO2) and other useless rocks such as halite (NaCl).
In Queenstown, Tasmania, a mine in Mount Lyell extracts copper. The main form of copper found at this mine is chalcopyrite (CuFeS2).   This tetragonal crystal is made of copper (I), iron (II) and sulphur.
Below is a list of the properties of chalcopyrite and the elements in it.
Properties of chalcopyrite:
Lustre: | Metallic |
Transparency: | Opaque |
Colour: | Brass yellow, often with an shining tarnish. |
Streak colour: | Greenish black |
Tenacity: | Brittle |
shape: | Irregular/Uneven |
Density | 4.1 - 4.3 g/cm3 |...