Climate Change

1. URBAN:Industry:- Late 18th and early 19th century
- Agriculture, manufacturing, production and transport
- CO2 increased by 100 ppm since the start of industrial revolution (^human activity)
- Large scale (burning of coal) is 2nd biggest contributor to GHE (16.8%)
- Relies on energy consumption which is fossil fuel dependent
- 14% of all transport furls consumed are from industrial sector, 11.3% of Fossil fuel processing and production, 5% of Australia’s GHG emissions
Power Supply:- Australia is heavily dependent on coal for electricity. ¾ derived from coal.  
- Power generation contributes 37% of the country's net CO2
- Non-renewable energies play a minor role in Australia’s electrical generation.
Transport:- Most significant contributor to urban GHGE (13.5% of total GHE)
- Air travel: 6.6%, road traffic: 90% of total transport emissions.
- Less than 11% of Perth people use public transport, 3% of these people do it for the environment
- Combustion engines: burning oil/diesel (fossil fuels) producing carbon, nitrous oxide and sulphates.
- Petrol produces 2.7 kilograms of GHGE per litre combusted, diesel produces 2.9 kilograms of GHGE per litre combusted.
- GHGE from transport has increased by 29% since 1990
Urban Heat Island Effect:- Local scale
- Concrete and little vegetation: lowers albedo, increases solar radiation absorbed at the surface.
- Less shade in cities due to fewer trees and they act a windbreaks (prevent cooling effect of wind).
- Pollution can add to this heating affect, as do industrial processes, vehicles and heating.
- Clear, still nights: rural areas radiate and lose heat, temp in the centre of a city can be 10°C warmer.
AGRICULTURAL: Land Clearing/Deforestation:
- 2 fold effect (stops removing from atmosphere, when burnt it releases it)
- Raises global levels of 15% to between 25-45% of total anthropogenic GHGE
- Reducing vegetation available to store carbon as well as changing global albedo rates
- 1995-2005,...