Civil Rights America

Timeline 1945-1960
• 1947 Truman administration report, To Secure These Rights.
• 1948 Truman tries to end discrimination in federal employment, black judges & deseg. army
• 1950 Supreme Court virtually overturns PLESSY v. FERGUSON—Separate but equal ruling.
• 1954 Till and Lucy illustrated Eisenhower’s attitude.
• 1954 Supreme Court declares against segregated schools (BROWN). White Citizens Councils are formed throughout South.
• Malcolm X’s preaching gains many converts for the Nation of Islam in Harlem.
• 1955 Supreme Court urged desegregation of education (BROWN II).
• 1955-6 Montgomery Bus boycott incident.
• 1956 Supreme Court declares segregation on buses unconstitutional.
• 1957 Desegregation controversy at Little Rock, Arkansas. Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) formed.
• 1958 Supreme Court declares school segregation unconstitutional (COOPER v. AARON).
• 1960 Anti-segregation Sit-ins begin in the South—Greensboro

Mnemonic – Because my little green frog always buys white socks
• Brown v board of education- 1954
• Montgomery- 1955-56
• Little Rock- 1957
• Greensboro- 1960
• Freedom Rides- 1961
• Albany- 1961-62
• Birmingham- 1963
• Washington Selma- 1963

Emmett Till
• In 1955, a 14-year-old African American teenager was brutally murdered by white men while visiting relatives in Mississippi
• His murder and the subsequent trial of his accused killers became a lightning rod for moral outrage, coincided with introduction of media
• Civil rights activists used the murder of Emmett Till as a rallying cry for civil rights protest, transforming a heinous crime into a springboard for justice.
• “The Shocking Story of Approved Killing in Mississippi.” Huie had offered Roy Bryant and J. W. Milam $4,000 to tell how they killed Emmett Till after they where found not guilty. Milam agreed and told their story for the record.
• After her son’s death, Mamie Till-Mobley became a powerful civil rights activist. She...