Child Development

Task 1 (part 2)
Describe and explain the stages of children and young people development. Go through such areas as physical, intellectual, social, emotional, behavioural and moral development.

Middle childhood (primary school) - 6 to 11 years old
Physical development:
  1. Children gain 2 to 3 inches and 4 to 6 pounds per year between ages 6 and 9. Past age 9, girls gain in height more rapidly than boys, and both boys and girls gain weight faster than height.
  2. Children who are extremely small for their age and family height pattern should be evaluated by a physician. Possible explanations include: chromosomal anomalies (e.g. Down syndrome), prenatal growth retardation, endocrine gland disorders (insuffi-ciency of growth hormone), malnutrition or chronic sub-nutrition.
  3. Obesity as a very common and increasing problem, especially in the United States and West Europe. At present, more than one-fifth of primary school children are obese and one-tenth are super-obese.
  4. Adequate physical exercise to achieve real fitness is important for children’s health. Physical education programs in schools are designed to meet this need, yet a signify- cant fraction of children cannot pass minimal tests of fitness.
  5. Children gain in both large muscle and small muscle coordination in the primary school years, making huge progress in skilful writing, drawing or cutting as well as more coordinated and skilful sports performance.
  6. Children with special problems include those diagnosed with ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) – it includes problems with both attention and excessive restlessness and activity.
  7. Learning disability (an unexpected or unexplained problem in learning to read, spell or calculate) may be caused by small anomalies in brain function; alternatively, it may reflect broader language or cognitive deficits, or both.
Cognitive development:
  1. During the school years, children can create remarkably complex...