Child Abuse



2.0 Introduction

      In this chapter, we present a review of various literatures on topics that have relevance to this study.   The discussion that follows is conducted in such a way as to provide summaries and interrogations of what scholars have done in the areas of crime and criminology by way of their thematic coverage, theoretical perspectives, postulates, speculations, findings and recommendations. The theoretical review is presented first.

2.1 Theoretical Framework

      The following theories were considered to be relevant to this study:
1. Cognitive Behavioural therapy
2. Psychosocial theory
3. The theory of Power and Control

1. Cognitive behavioral therapy (or cognitive behavioral therapies or CBT) is a psychotherapeutic approach that aims to solve problems concerning dysfunctional emotions, behaviours and cognitions through a goal-oriented, systematic procedure. The title is used in diverse ways to designate behaviour therapy, cognitive therapy, and to refer to therapy based upon a combination of basic behavioural and cognitive research (Francis, 2008).
      There is empirical evidence that CBT is effective for the treatment of a variety of problems, including mood, anxiety, personality, eating, substance abuse, and psychotic disorders (Bet et. al 2006). Treatment is often manualized, with specific technique-driven brief, direct, and time-limited treatments for specific psychological disorders. CBT is used in individual therapy as well as group settings, and the techniques are often adapted for self-help applications. Some clinicians and researchers are more cognitive oriented (e.g. cognitive restructuring), while others are more behaviourally oriented (in vivo exposure therapy). Other interventions combine both (e.g. imaginal exposure therapy) (Foa, Rothbaum, & Furr, 2003).
      CBT was primarily developed through a merging of behaviour therapy with cognitive therapy....