Chemistry Voltaic Cells

The Effect of pH of Electrolyte on Conductivity and Voltage


How does changing the pH level of lemon juice affect the voltage and conductivity
Research Question

produced in a lemon juice cell?

Many of today's devices are powered by what is called a battery. Your computers,

calculators, mobile phones, iPods, and other electronic gadgets and devices function with the

supply of energy from batteries. We use batteries everyday, yet we don't often question what

a battery is made of or consider the factors of its performance. If you have ever taken physics,
you would understand that high voltage batteries supply more energy than low voltage

batteries, but what causes these high and low levels of voltage? We have only been aware

about the size of the battery affecting the amount of voltage, but have we thought about other
factors that could play a role in affecting voltage?

The purpose of this research is to investigate how the pH of the electrolyte affects the

amount of voltage. That way we will be able to understand that perhaps this could be a factor
that affects voltage other than the volume/size of the battery. Furthermore, because the

world today is very much inclined towards developing sustainable energy, investigating this
could possibly set a foundation for improving the efficiency and performance of batteries.
Background Knowledge

The voltaic cell consists of a negative electrode, a positive electrode, and an electrolyte.

The Voltaic Cell

Electrodes are the conductive metals, such as zinc and copper, on which electrons are

accepted or donated. The electrolyte is usually the liquid or pasty substance that contains

ions, which consists of ions that can cause chemical reactions in the electrodes. The negative
electrode donates its electrons to the positive electrode. In order to keep a balance of

electrons in the two electrodes, a metal wire is connected between the electrodes, creating a...