Chapter 2

Chapter II
This chapter presents literatures and studies taken from different sources that are essential contributions to the present study. These resources are cited hereunder.
  A. Foreign Literature
Educational planning offers quite a few opportunities for using computers in decision making. Already some progress has been made in this direction. One of the areas in educational administration are enrollment system, web sites, 24/7 internet connections, faculty loading system.
According to McPartland, (1990) most American middle and high schools, and many elementary schools, are departmentalized – students receive daily instruction from several different teachers because each teacher specializes in a single subject. This practice is nearly universal in high schools and almost as common in the middle grades; it is often reinforced by certification regulations that stipulate only specialized teachers may be used in the secondary grades. The rationale for such regulations is that the instructional content of each academic subject in the secondary grades requires teachers who are experts in the area, and that instruction will be of higher quality when teachers can take special pride in their subject-matter discipline and can concentrate on preparing a limited number of outstanding lessons each day that are offered to several different classes. Although research supports some of the instructional benefits of departmentalized staffing, the risks that may students will not encounter a climate of caring and support have been more strongly documented.
Everybody makes a schedule that helps to organized daily activities. Making a schedule for any organized activities, one considers a sequence of tasks and a list of resources. Resources include tools, machines, materials, work force etc. employers are making schedule for employees, and it is more difficult to make a schedule for organization, than making a schedule for...