* Contains Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen.
  * Three main types are:
  1. Monosaccharides
  2. Disaccharides
  3. Polysaccharides
  * The term ‘saccharide’ is derived from the Latin word ‘sacchararum’ meaning the sweet taste in sugars.
Monosaccharides: (contain one sugar unit)
  * (CH2O)n – is the basic formula. (E.g. Glucose – (CH2O)6 = C6H12O6
  * If n = 3, then it is a triose (e.g. glyceraldehyde), it will always have 3 carbons.
  * If n= 5, then it is a pentose (e.g. fructose, ribose), it will always have 5 carbons.
  * If n= 6, then it is a hexose (e.g. glucose, galactose), it will always have 6 carbons.
  * Monosaccharides are used for:
  1. Energy
  2. Building blocks.

  * Isomers are compounds with the same molecular formula but not necessarily the same structural formula.
  * Monosaccharides can exist as isomers:
  1. alpha glucose
  2. beta glucose

The derivation of names of monosaccharides:
  * Glucose = Greek word for sweet wine, grape sugar, blood sugar, dextrose.
  * Galactose = Greek word for milk ‘galact’, found as a component of lactose in milk.
  * Fructose = Latin word for fruit ‘fructus’, also known as levulose. Found in fruits and honey, sweetest sugar.
  * Ribose = Ribose and Deoxyribose are found in the backbone structure of RNA and DNA.

  * Formed by two monosaccharides.
  * Joined by a glycosidic bond.
  * When two monosaccharides join together, a condensation reaction occurs.
Examples of disaccharides:
  * glucose + glucose = maltose
  * glucose + galactose = lactose
  * glucose + fructose = sucrose.

The derivation of names of disaccharides:
  * Sucrose (glucose + fructose) = French word for sugar ‘sucre’. In the form of table sugar, can sugar, beet sugar, used in cooking.
  * Lactose (glucose + galactose) = Latin word for milk ‘lact’, found in milk.
  * Maltose (glucose + glucose) = French word for ‘malt’. Found in...