Cad and Smoking

Both cigarette smoking and high blood pressure (BP) are important modifiable risk factors that play significant roles in the development of coronary heart disease (CHD), which accounts for a striking global burden of premature death in both developing and industrialized regions.

Peinemann, F., Moebus, S., Dragano, N., Möhlenkamp, S., Lehmann, N., Zeeb, H., & ... Hoffmann, B. (2011). Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Coronary Artery Calcification among Nonsmoking Participants of a Population-Based Cohort. Environmental Health Perspectives, 119(11), 1556-1561.
Abstract: Background: Secondhand smoke (SHS) consists of fine particulate matter, carcinogens, and various toxins that affect large parts of the population. SHS increases the risk for acute cardiovascular events and may contribute to the development of atherosclerosis. Objectives: We investigated the association of SHS with coronary artery calcification (CAC). Methods: In this cross-sectional analysis, we used baseline data (2000-2003) from 1,766 never-smokers without clinically manifested coronary heart disease, 45-75 years of age, from the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study, an ongoing, prospective, population-based cohort study in Germany. Self-reported frequent SHS at home, at work, and in other places was assessed by questionnaire. CAC scores were derived based on electron-beam computed tomography. We conducted multiple linear regression analysis using exposure to SHS as the explanatory variable and In (CAC+1) as the response variable. We conducted logistic regression to estimate the odds ratio (OR) for presence of any CAC. Results: Frequent exposure to SHS was reported by 21.5% of participants. After adjustment forage, sex, and socioeconomic status, CAC + 1 was 21.1% [95% confidence interval (CI): -5.5%, 55.2%] higher in exposed than in unexposed participants. After adjusting for other cardiovascular risk factors, the association was attenuated...