PD/H/PE Preliminary Notes
Topic: The Body in Motion
The Skeletal System
Planes of the Body
  * There are three planes of the body.
  * Sagittal; this is an imaginary line drawn lengthwise through the body running from front the back. The body therefore is divided into right and left.
  * Corronal or Frontal; an imaginary line drawn lengthwise through the body running from side to side, therefore divided into anterior and posterior.
  * Transverse; an imaginary line drawn through the body, therefore dividing the body into top and bottom sections.
Anatomical Terms
  * Superior; towards the head or above.
  * Inferior; towards the feet or below.
  * Anterior; front or in front of.
  * Posterior; back or at the back of.
  * Lateral; towards the side of the body or away from the midline.
  * Medial; towards the midline of the body.
  * Proximal; closer to the top of a limb.
  * Distal; closer towards the bottom or end of a limb.
  * Supine; lying face upwards.
Major Skeletal Bones
  * Types of Bones
  * Long; are hollow, tubular in shape and have a long shaft. E.g. femur and tibia.
  * Short; are shaped like a cube and are almost equal is length and width. E.g. carpals and tarsals.
  * Flat; generally thin and with a layer of spongy bone in their centre. E.g. scapula and pelvic girdle.
  * Irregular; have complex structures and differ from others in the body. E.g. vertebral column.
  * Sesamoid; classified according to location rather than shape, they are found in tendons. E.g. patella.
  * Functions of the Skeletal System
  * Support the organs and tissues of the body.
  * Protection for internal organs.
  * Base attachment for muscles; together they provide Movement.
  * A source of production of red and white blood cells and blood platelets.
  * Storage of minerals.
  * Bones of the Human Skeleton
  * Axial Skeleton; is made up of the bones that lie on the long axis of the body. This includes the cranium,...