Unit 5

Make notes on all the constituents of blood and their functions in detail
Red Cells
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Red cells, or can be known as eythroctyes big microscopic cells without nuclei.  Red cells normally make up 40-50% of the total blood volume.    Function is they transport oxygen from the lungs to all of the living tissues of the body and carry away carbon dioxide.  The red cells are produced continuously in our bone marrow from stem cells at a rate of about 2-3 million cells per second. Each red cell has about 270,000,000 iron-rich hemoglobin molecules.  People who are anemic generally have a deficiency in red cells, and subsequently feel fatigued due to a shortage of oxygen.  The red color of blood is primarily due to oxygenated red cells.  Human fetal hemoglobin molecules differ from those produced by adults in the number of amino acid chains.  Fetal hemoglobin has three chains, while adults produce only two.  As a consequence, fetal hemoglobin molecules attract and transport relatively more oxygen to the cells of the body.

White Cells
White cells, can be found in variable numbers and types but make up a very small part of blood's volume, normally only about 1% in healthy people. White are not limited to blood.  They occur elsewhere in the body as well, most notably in the spleen, liver, and lymph glands.  Most are produced in our bone marrow from the same kind of stem cells that produce red blood cells.  Others are produced in the thymus gland, which is at the base of the neck. Lympocytes are the first responders for our immune system.  They seek out, identify, and bind any bacteria and get rid of it.Other white cells (calledgranulocytes and macrophages  then arrive to surround and destroy the alien cells.  They also have the function of getting rid of dead or dying blood cells as well as foreign matter such as dust and asbestos.  Red cells remain viable for only about 4 months before they are removed from the blood and their components recycled in...