Biology Lab 2 Rutgers Newark

Enzymes speed up chemical reactions by lowering activation energy (that is, the energy
needed for a reaction to begin). In every chemical reaction, the starting materials (the
Substrate in the case of enzymes) can take many different paths to forming products.
For each path, there is an intermediate or transitional product between reactants and final products. The energy needed to start a reaction is the energy required to form that
transitional product. Enzymes make it easier for substrates to reach that transitional
state. The easier it is to reach that state, the less energy the reaction needs.
Enzymes are biological catalysts. They are large protein molecules, folded so that they
have very specifically shaped substrate binding sites. These binding sites make substrates go into the transition state. To catalyze the reaction, several regions of the binding site must be precisely positioned around the substrate molecules. Any change in the shape of the overall folded enzyme molecule can change the shape of the binding site. Enzymes are proteins that speed up chemical reactions in cells. They break down
molecules called substrates. Each enzyme has only one substrate that it breaks down. Enzymes are produced in the cells of the body and affect the rate of almost all the chemical reactions which take place in living organisms. The rate of enzyme activity is influenced by temperature, pH, and the presence of inhibitors.


Enzymes are globular shaped proteins that are found throughout the body, with their main function being to act as biological catalysts. An enzyme can act to speed up or regulate the rate of the reaction, in order to maintain an efficient rate of biological reactions. Enzymes, whilst having an important role in the reaction of many chemicals within the body, are not consumed in the reaction, and so are able to catalyze many reactions in their life cycle. Enzymes are able to reduce the activation energy...