‘Ain Ghazal
The Most Important Neolithic Site
The Neolithic period began in 9500 B.C.E and is traditionally considered the last part of the Stone Age. This era began with the rise of farming and ended with the use and manufacturing of stone tools. This era consists of three parts; Pre Pottery Neolithic A, Pre Pottery Neolithic B and Pottery Neolithic (McNamara 2005: 51).
In 1974, the construction of a highway in Jordan revealed a large Neolithic site called ‘Ain Ghazal. For almost ten years ‘Ain Ghazal went untouched and the site became compromised by natural forces and additional construction projects. ‘Ain Ghazal is a large Pre-Pottery Neolithic B period. There have been two seasons of excavations at this site targeting the most exposed areas. It is one of the most significant Neolithic sites in the Near East (Simmons/Rollefson 1982-83: 387).   Archaeologists methodically went through the process of using the archaeological record which has enabled them to accurately make cultural inferences about the people that lived at ‘Ain Ghazal during the Neolithic period.
In ‘Ain Ghazal, archaeologist have made conclusions about the way that these people lived through the analysis of their culture. The first aspect of culture is technology which can be defined as the means by which human societies interact most directly with the natural environment (class notes, 2/2/11). There have been nine habitation dwellings excavated; they all consist of two rooms which are made from stone and mud mortar. The walls inside the buildings were coated with lithium and decorated with red ochre. The floors consisted of high quality plaster and were also painted with red ochre. The second room within these dwellings were often used for storage or in the preparation of food. But not all were the same; there was a degree of individuality that existed within each building (Simmons/Rollefson 1982-83: 389). The people of ‘Ain Ghazal displayed the ability to construct stable and efficient...