Apes Review

Hannah Terry
6th period APES
Chapter 8 Review
  * Earth is 4.3 billion years old
  * Layers of the Earth
  1. Core – the innermost zone, over 3000 km below Earth’s surface
  2. Mantle – above the core, containing molten rock (magma) that slowly circulates convection cells
  3. Crust – the solid upper mantle, chemically distinct outermost layer of the lithosphere
  * Earth’s heat comes from radioactive decay of various isotopes of elements such as potassium, uranium, and thorium, which releases heat.
  * Alfred Wegner’s evidence of Pangaea – Observations of identical rock formations on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, fossil evidence, location of plate tectonics
  * Volcanoes – over time as plate tectonics moves past a hot spot, the heat rising mantle causes volcanoes
  * Plate Boundaries:
  1. Divergent – oceanic plates move apart, as magma from the mantle reaches Earth’s surface and pushes upward and outward, new rock is formed
  2. Convergent Plate – plates move toward each other and collide
  3. Transform – plates move sideways past each other
  * Earth’s damage –
  1. Richter Scale
  2. Location (Proximity to life)
  3. Structural integrity
  * Rock Cycle – slowly but continuously forms new rock and breaks down old rock, three types of rock are created in the rock cycle: igneous rock is formed from magma, sedimentary is formed by the compression if sedimentary materials and metamorphic rock is created when rocks are subjected to high temperatures and pressures
  * Weathering – occurs when rock is exposed to air, water, certain chemical compounds (physical and chemical breakdown of rocks)
Erosion – physical and chemical weathering result in the breakdown and chemical alteration of rock